Cellular Pool

  • The total biomolecules found in a cell is commonly known as cellular pool
  • It consists of both inorganic and organic compounds.

The cellular pool consists of

    • Water65%
    • Inorganic materials
      • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen – 93%
      • Major Metal elements – 5% (Na, K, Ca, Mg)
      • Major non-metal elements – 2% (N2, P, S,Cl)
      • Minor metal elements – traces (Zn, Mn, Mo, Co)
      • Minor non-metal elements – traces  (F, I, B, Se)
    • Organic Materials
      • Carbohydrates
      • Lipids
      • Amino acids
      • Nucleotides
      • Nucleic acids
      • Vitamins
      • Proteins

1. Water

  • Water is the most abundant component in living organisms.
  • Life on earth is inevitably linked to water.

Related image

  • Water makes up 70% of human cell and up to 95% of mass of a plant cell

Function of water in living organisms

  • Water makes up 2/3 rd of the body weight.
  • Due to its solvent action, water forms an ideal medium for chemical reactions.
  • Water is a reagent and is a source of H+ and OH ions for many biochemical reactions.
  • Water maintains molecular conformations and stabilizes structural organization of living matter.
  • The high specific heat and mobility of water distribute heat uniformly throughout the body.
  • Water helps in heat loss by convection and radiation from skin surface and plant surface.
  • High latent heat of evaporation of water causes elimination of excess heat through evaporation of sweat and maintains a constant body temperature.
  • Water helps in transport of substances within the body (of plants/animals) and elimination of waste products.

2. Inorganic Materials

The inorganic materials or minerals are of two types:

  • Macronutrients – Required in larger amounts
  • Micronutrients – Required in trace amounts

They are essential for the activity of enzymes.

  • Manganese is required for activity of enzyme needed for synthesis of oligosaccharides and glycoproteins.
  • Molybdenum is necessary for fixation of nitrogen by enzyme nitrogenase.

The minerals found in animal body are

  • Macro-Elements: Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Sulphur, Nitrogen and Magnesium.
  • Micro-Elements Zinc, Molybdenum, Iron, Copper, Manganese, Iodine and Fluorine.

The minerals found in animal body are

  • Macro-Elements : Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulphur, Potassium, and Magnesium
  • Micro-Elements: Zinc, Manganese, Molybdenum, Boron and Chloride.