Central Processing Unit (CPU)

All the important functions of the computer are carried out by the CPU. It produces the output after receiving instructions from both the hardware and active software. It is also known as microprocessor, processor, and central processor. All the important programs like application software and operating system are stored by the CPU. It also works as a link between output and input devices and helps them communicate with each other.

Usually, there are 3 components of a CPU:

  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
  • Control Unit
  • Memory or storage unit.


Memory: It is known as Random Access Memory (RAM). It temporarily stores programs, data and final and intermediate results of processing.

Control Unit: The functioning of all parts of the computer is controlled and coordinated by the Control Unit. It does not involve storing and processing data.

ALU: Logical and arithmetic functions are performed by it. Logical functions comprise of comparing, merging and selecting the data and Arithmetic functions include addition, multiplication, division and subtraction.


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