Family Solanaceae

It is commonly called the potatao family. They are widely distributed in tropics, subtropics and temperate regions.

Vegetative characters

Habitat Plants mostly herbs, shrubs and rarely small trees.

Stem Herbaceous, rarely Woody, Aerial; Erect, Cylindrical, Branched, Solid or Hollow, Hair or Glabrous, Underground stem in Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)
Leaves Leaves: alternate, simple, rarely pinnately compound, Exstipulate; venation reticulate.
Root Branched tap root system.

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Floral characters

Inflorescence Solitary, axillary or cymose as in Solanum.
Flower Bisexual, actinomorphic.
Calyx Sepals 5, United (gamosepalous), Persistent, Valvate Aestivation.
Corolla Petals 5, United (gamopetalous); Valvate Aestivation.
Androecium Stamens 5, Epipetalous.
Gynoecium Bicarpellary Obligately placed, Syncarpous; Ovary superior, Bilocular, Placenta swollen with many ovules, Axile placentataion.
Fruit Legume
Seed Many, Endospermous.

Floral Formula:

 

Floral Diagram:

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Economic Importance

Members of this group yield vegetables, medicines and ornamentals.

Vegetables: Tomato, Brinjal, Potato, Chilli.

Medicine: Belladonna, Ashwagandha, Datura

Ornamental: Petunia (Queen Of The Night)

 

It is commonly called the ‘Lily Family’. It is a characteristic representative of monocot plants. They have a cosmopolitan distribution.

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Vegetative characters

Habitat Perennial herbs with underground bulbs, corms or rhizomes.
Stem Herbaceous or Woody, Aerial and Underground.
Leaves Basal, Alternate, Linear, Exstipulate With Parallel Venation
Root Usually adventitious, sometimes tuberous.

Floral characters

Inflorescence Solitary or cymose; Umbellate clusters.
Flower Bisexual, actinomorphic.
Perianth Tepals six (3+3), United into a tube, Valvate Aestivation.
Androecium Stamens six (3+3), Epipetalous.
Gynoecium Tricarpellary, Syncarpous; Ovary superior, Trilocular, many ovules, Axile placentataion.
Fruit Capsule, rarely berry.
Seed Endospermous.

Floral Formula:

Floral Diagram:

Economic Importance

Members of this group are widely used as ornamentals.

Food: Onion, Garlic, Asparagus.

Fibres: Yucca, Phormium tenax.

Medicine: Aloe vera, Gloriosa, Urginea, Asparagus, Smilax Colchicum.

Ornamental: Tulips, Lillies, Asparagus, Gloriosa, Yucca.

 

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