The gonads are the primary reproductive glands that are responsible for the production of gametes (reproductive cells). In the men, the gonads are known as testes and in the women the gonads are ovaries. They are controlled by follicle-stimulating hormones and luteinizing hormones. The gonads start development just like the gonadal ridges and later they are differentiated to the female or male reproductive organs. The SRY gene is located on the Y chromosome and it encodes the testes determining factor and is responsible for the determination of the male sexual differentiation. If the SRY gene is absent on the Y chromosome then the female sex organs will be developed. The development of the gonads is part of the development of the reproductive and the urinary organs.
Gonads and the Gamete Production
Gonads are present where the female and the male reproductive organs are developed. The spermatogenesis that is the production of sperms continuously takes place in the male testes. In the process of meiosis, the spermatocyte undergoes the two parts of the cell division. The meiosis causes the production of sex cells which are having the half number of the chromosomes just like the parent cell. The female sex cells and the haploid male cells are united during the fertilization and make the zygote. For the fertilization to takes place, hundreds of millions of sperms should be released.
Gonads: Hormonal Regulation
The sex hormones can be regulated by the organs, glands, by the other hormones, and also by the negative feedback mechanism. The hormones which cause the release and the regulation of other hormones are known as the tropic hormones. Gonadotropins are also tropic hormones that cause the regulation of the release of sex hormones by the gonads. The majority of the gonadotropins are released by the anterior pituitary. Even the secretion of the gonadotropin is also regulated by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone which is produced by the hypothalamus. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates the pituitary glands to release the gonadotropins and which in turn stimulates the gonads, for producing and secreting the sex hormones.
Disorders Associated with the Gonads
The gonadal disorders occur due to the disruption in the structure or the function of the female, or the male gonads. The disorders which exert the negative influences on the ovaries include ovarian cancer, ovarian torsion, and the ovarian cyst. The female gonadal disorders which are associated with the endocrine system hormones are amenorrhea in which there is no menstrual period in the females and polycystic ovary syndrome, while the disorders of the male testicles include the testicular cancer epididymitis, hypogonadism, and testicular torsion.