Key moments that rocked the classical music world

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Introduction of musical notation: -Musical notation in the music of Western civilization first appeared by the 9th century in the form of little mnemonic markings.

Martin Luther (1483–1546): -As the seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation, German priest, author, and hymnwriter.

Castrati take center stage: -Until women were allowed to sing in church and thus take over the role, the only way for men to maintain a pure treble .

Hildegard of Bingen (c. 1098–1179): -One of the earliest composers of classical music was a woman, a German Benedictine abbess called Hildegard of Bingen. 

Invention of the printing press: -The invention of the printing press in 1440 by German goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg (c. 1400–1468) enormous impact on the distribution of information around Europe.

Birth of ballet: -The history of ballet begins around 1500 in Italy. The first formal 'court ballet' ever recognized was 'Ballet des Polonais,' commissioned.

Development of the carol: -The word carol is derived from the Old French word carole, a circle dance accompanied by singers.

First opera: -Italian composer and singer Jacopo Peri (1561–1633) is often called the inventor of opera. He established the genre in 1597 with 'Dafne.

Development of the hymn: -The hymn survives from antiquity, especially from Egyptian and Greek cultures, but is familiar to speakers of English in the context of Christianity.

First use of polyphony: -In music, polyphony is the simultaneous combination of two or more tones or melodic lines as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, or monophony. 

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