The fascinating origins of the Red Cross

Battle of Solferino: The Battle of Solferino took place in present-day Italy on June 24, 1859 between French and Austrian forces. 

Henry Dunant (1828–1910): Henry Dunant published 'A Memory of Solferino' in 1862. While not a first-hand witness to the battle.

A Memory of Solferino: The publication of the book led to the establishment of a Swiss-based group that put together a plan for national relief associations.

The Geneva Convention: Dunant advocated for the establishment of national relief organizations made up of trained volunteers.

Red cross flag: Soon afterwards the committee adopted its official emblem—the red cross flag, an inverse of the Swiss flag.

Battle of Dybbøl: The Battle of Dybbøl, fought in Denmark on April 18, 1864, saw the first use of the Red Cross symbol in an armed conflict.

Red Crescent flag: Having ratified the Geneva treaty in 1865, the Ottoman Empire began using a red crescent as its emblem. 

Red Crystal: In response to concerns about the red cross and red crescent symbols conveying religious meanings.

Co-recipient of first Nobel Peace Prize: In 1867, financial problems led Dunant to resign his position on the committee. 

Clara Barton (1821–1912): Clara Barton was a former educator who became a hospital nurse in the American Civil War.

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