Antibiotics are those chemical substances made by some microbes that, if in little concentration will kill or retard the expansion of harmful microbes while they will not adversely poignant the host. Antibiotic drug was the primary antibiotic to be discovered by Fleming (1928). He found that flora Penicillium notatum or its extract may inhibit the expansion of bacteria cocci aureus.
Over 7000 antibiotics are illustrious. Because as the time is passing some three hundred new antibiotics are discovered by the supply of supersensitised microbes. Streptomycesforms quite forty one antibiotics whereas Bacillus subtilis produces around sixty antibiotics. Antibiotics will be in depth spectrum or specific.
Broad Spectrum Antibiotic: it’s the antibiotic which might kill or destroy variety of pathogens that belong to totally different teams with different structure and wall composition.
Specific Antibiotic: it’s the antibiotic that is effective solely against one variety of pathogens.
Antibiotics operate either as bactericides (killing bacteria) or biological process (inhibiting growth of bacteria). This is often done by:
(i) Disruption of wall synthesis, e.g., penicillin, cephalosporins, bacitracin,
(ii) Disruption of plasmalemma repair and synthesis, e.g., polymyxin, nystatin, antibiotic drug,
(iii) Inhibition of fifty S organelle operate, e.g., erythromycin,
(iv) Inhibition of thirty S organelle operate, e.g., antibiotic, neomycin,
(v) Inhibition of aa-tRNA binding to organelle, e.g., antibacterial drug,
(vi) Inhibition of translation, e.g., chloramphenicol.
Characteristics of a decent Antibiotic:
(a) Harmless to host with no aspect impact,
(b) Harmless to traditional microflora of gastrointestinal tract,
(c) Ability to destroy ineffective agent similarly as broad spectrum,
(d) Effective against all strains of ineffective agent,
(e) Fast action.
Production of Antibiotic:
Suitable strain of organism is cultivated on a sterilized nutrient medium given optimum pW, aeration, temperature, anti foaming agent and antibiotic precursor (if any). Once ample antibiotic has subtle into medium, the microorganism is separated and also the antibiotic is extracted from medium by precipitation, absorption or solvent treatment. It’s pure, focused and bio-assayed before packing.
Antibiotics square measure obtained from lichens, fungi, moneron and actinomycetes. The common antibiotic from lichens is usnic acid (Usnea and Cladonia). Amongst moneron, 2 account for many antibiotics, Bacilli (70%) and genus Pseudomonas (30%). Fungi yield variety of antibiotics like antibiotic drug, patulin and penicillin (Penicillium species), cephalosporins (from marine flora Cephalosporium acremonium), antiamoebin (Emericellopsis), polyporin (.Polystictus sanguineus), clitocybin (Clitocybine gigantea), citrinin (Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium citrinum), clavacin (Aspergillus clavatus), etc.
Most far-famed medicine are those which we get from actinomycetes, particularly actinomycete, e.g., antibiotic, Chloromycetin, tetracyclin, terramycin, Ethril. Alternativeantibiotic yielding actinomycetes square measure Streptosporangium, Streptoverticillium, Micromonospora, Nocardia and Actinoplanes, etc. Some antibiotics square measure changed to reinforce their potential. They’re unreal, e.g., ampicillin, oxocillin.
(i) As medicines for treatment of variety of morbific or infectious diseases. As a result of antibiotics and their newer stronger forms, variety of formidable diseases square measure currently curable, e.g., plague, typhoid, T.B., respiratory illness, diphtheria, leprosy, etc.
(ii) As preservatives in decay able fresh foods articles (e.g., meat and fish), pasteurized and canned foods,
(iii) As feed supplement for animals, particularly poultry birds as a result they enhance growth.