Monosaccharides (Glucose and Fructose)

Monosaccharides are the simplest forms of the sugars and simplest classification of the carbohydrates which are found in the innumerable common foods such as fruits, cane sugars, and honey. Monosaccharides are formed by the three elements only, which are hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. They are the most basic units of the carbohydrates and their hydrolyzation is not possible for getting simpler sugars.


Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide in nature. A large part of the energy in our bodies is obtained from the glucose that is present in the body by the breakdown of the food we eat. It has six carbon atoms in its molecules, so it is an aldohexose. Mainly glucose is obtained from the two sources such as sucrose, and starch. Glucose is also prepared on the commercial scale by the hydrolysis of starch by boiling it with the diluted sulphuric acid. It can also be prepared from the fructose as a by-product and here its boiling is done with the diluted hydrochloric acid or maybe sulphuric acid in the alcoholic solution. Glucose is an important carbohydrate in the human cell and it is involved in the respiration process. When the molecules of glucose are metabolized, then energy is released. Maltose is formed by the reaction of two glucose molecules and cellulose and starch are also made up of glucose units. In the health system glucose is the most important needed medication.


Fructose is the simplest ketonic monosaccharide and mostly it is present in the fruits, plants, vegetable roots, flowers, so it is also known as the moniker of the fruit sugar. Fructose is abundantly present in the corn syrup and honey. Sucrose is formed by the bonding of fructose with glucose by making a disaccharide. Pierre Debrunfaut who was the French chemist was the first person to discover the fructose. Fructose is having very different bonding than the glucose and it has an intramolecular hemiacetal structure. The carbonyl group is attached to the second carbon. Rather than the ring of six atoms, it has a fiver atom ring. Generally, in the cyclic form, it makes the five-member ring that is called as the furanose ring. Fructose is non reducing sugar. The chemical name of fructose is levulose. Fructose is also used in the ice cream to prevent the sandiness. The shape of fructose is like orthorhombic, bispherodial prisms. Its consumption in large quantities may cause gastrointestinal distress.


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