A transaction in DBMS is a collection of logically related tasks. It consists of a set of operations.
A transaction is an assembly of consecutive actions or a single operation that is done by a single operator to execute tasks to access the information of a database.
For example: Consider the employee of a bank who transfers an amount Rs 1000 from the bank account of X to that of Y. This task may seem small and easy, but it involves a series of low-level operations.
Explanation of transaction
Transactions in the bank account of X
Previous_Bal = X.bal
Transactions in the bank account of Y
Previous_Bal = Y.bal
Tasks of the transaction in DBMS
Enlisted below are the primary tasks of the transaction
Read (X): To read the value of X from the tables of the database and store the same in the memory buffer
Write (X): To write the value from the memory buffer back to the tables of the database
Now let us consider the following scenario
Let the value of X before transaction be 1000
- The initial task reads the value of X from the table of the databases and stores it in the buffer space
- The second task reduces X’s amount by 200. The buffer now contains 800
- The third task writes the value in the buffer to the table of the database. The final amount of X is 800
But owing to the failure of software, hardware, or power, the transaction might fail before completion.
For instance, If there is a failure in the debit transaction after the execution of the second task, then the value of X will remain in 1000, which will be unfavorable for the bank.
For the resolution of this issue, there are two significant transaction operations.
- Rollback operation to undo the executed work
- Commit for the permanent saving of the work.